In the late nineteenth century, some of the biggest names in Impressionist painting, planted their easels in the fields or at the edge of the water. The Seine and the hills that stand far away country life are invitations to which the young Edouard Manet went more willingly that his family lives in the village.
At the time of Caillebotte, who immortalized the bridge connecting Gennevilliers Argenteuil, commonly spoke of the peninsula of Gennevilliers. Today they are twelve bridges carrying roads, motorways or railway that franchisent the Seine around the peninsula. The Quai du Petit-Gennevilliers, emblematic site of Impressionism, facing the banks where Argenteuil Caillebotte lived 14 years, is now occupied by SNECMA. Its banks, currently left to the state of brownfields offer upside potential for interest patrimonial.-
Many paintings by Monet, Manet, Renoir, Caillebotte with the location "Argenteuil" in their titles, were painted in Gennevilliers or retain elements, works frequently representing both banks.
Description of the passage of Gustave Caillebotte in Gennevilliers
S’il n’est pas le plus illustre des peintres impressionnistes, Gustave Caillebotte occupe une place importante dans l’histoire de ce mouvement. Et sans doute faut-il voir dans ses activités de mécène, de collectionneur, d’organisateur d’expositions, ce qui a nui à la reconnaissance de son œuvre picturale. Gustave Caillebotte était lié depuis longtemps à Edouard Manet. C’est en 1881 qu’il vint s’installer à Gennevilliers. Il acheta une propriété au Petit-Gennevilliers, en bordure de Seine, face à Argenteuil. L’année 1881 est celle d’importantes ruptures, le groupe impressionniste se disloque, mais Caillebotte, à grand mal, réussira à organiser l’exposition de 1882, qui pour lui, sera la dernière. Délaissant peu à peu sa résidence parisienne qu’il quittera définitivement en 1887, c’est au Petit-Gennevilliers qu’une seconde vie commence, plus paisible, bercée par les méandres de la Seine, cette Seine au bord de laquelle est né l’impressionnisme. Monet et Renoir ont planté leur chevalet dans le parc de cette maison dont Caillebotte a su faire, malgré l’éclatement du groupe, un lieu de rendez-vous, de ralliement pour ses amis de toujours. « Ce petit coin de Gennevilliers » va le confirmer dans sa passion pour les bateaux à voile. Il en possède plusieurs dont il dessine lui-même les plans et qu’il engage le dimanche dans des régates. Alors qu’il s’est retiré dans sa maison de campagne, loin du brouhaha de la vie parisienne, il n’en reste pas moins fidèle et attentionné, comme toujours. Le titre de « protecteur des impressionnistes » est resté attaché à son nom. Il s’efforcera en effet, à tout instant, de venir en aide à ses amis et cette aide généreuse s’exercera dès le début de leurs relations, à l’époque des premières expositions de groupe. La maison du Petit-Gennevilliers aura servi à maintenir la tradition des dîners qui réunissaient couramment à son initiative, et le plus souvent à ses frais, le jeunes peintres et les jeunes écrivains, au café Guerbois puis à la Nouvelle Athènes. Maire-adjoint de Gennevilliers, Caillebotte partageait son temps entre la peinture, le yachting et l’administration généreusement paternelle de la commune : de nombreuses installations furent réalisées à ses frais. Un article paru dans The art journal, peu après son décès, à propos de la façon dont il s’acquittait de son mandat électoral, dit notamment : « Jamais on ne vit pareil élu : pour ne pas être tracassé par la paperasserie administrative ou être obligé de se livrer à des vérifications de mémoires, il payait tout de ses propres deniers : l’éclairage, les cailloux de la route, l’habillement des pompiers. Une fois entre autres, il trouve que la commune manquait de becs de gaz et, sans attendre les décisions de ses collègues, il les commande de sa propre initiative, prenant naturellement tous les frais à sa charge. C’était l’ombre de Mécène au pays de Cocagne. » Dès 1876, à l’âge de 28 ans, le mécène avait rédigé son fameux testament, par lequel il léguait ses collections au Musée du Louvre. Pendant son séjour à Gennevilliers, il le remanie à plusieurs reprises car il prévoyait qu’il mourrait jeune. Le 21 février 1894, il était emporté, au Petit-Gennevilliers, par une congestion cérébrale. A sa disparition prématurée, à l’âge de 46 ans , Caillebotte laisse derrière lui une œuvre originale et variée de cinq cent toiles et une collection d’œuvres connue sous le nom de « Legs de Caillebotte ». Ainsi, les impressionnistes doivent-ils leur consécration muséographique à leur ami Gustave Caillebotte qui eut, de plus, la délicatesse et la modestie de ne joindre aucune de ses œuvres à son propre legs. Sa propriété a complètement disparu. Elle se trouvait près du pont d’Argenteuil à l’emplacement actuel des usines SNECMA.
7 painters List of "Impressionist list" having painted Gennevilliers or having shown Gennevilliers :
Period: 1881 - 1894
No. of tables: 149
Period: 1871 - 1877
No. of tables: 60
No. of tables: 4
No. of tables: 4
No. of tables: 13
Period: 1872 - 1875
No. of tables: 9
No. of tables: 1
Number of tables: 240
Painter of "Impressionist space"
No. of tables: 1
The Manet gained their first properties to the mid-eighteenth century and have always been closely associated with the life of the parish and the commune. In 1749, Augustin François Manet's "squire president of France Envelope Sealers and keeps the generality of Alencon, former lawyer in Parliament, provost of Gennevilliers Asnieres, Villeneuve-la-Garenne and outbuildings .... ".
In 1768, his son Jean-Baptiste Clément Manet, inherits his Equerry and "the king's counselor, president treasurer of France finance office at Alençon".
In 1776, he first lodge rue du Puits Murois, Cloister Notre Dame and exit Gennevilliers to Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. On the eve of the Revolution, he takes the civic oath, made his statements grains and acquires National Property which enlarge its heritage gennevillois significantly. Under the Directory, he himself appointed mayor of Gennevilliers in the early days of 1795, replacing more revolutionary than he, after Thermidor.
In 1806, a third Manet, Clement, son of the former, is deputy mayor and became mayor from 1808 to 1814. His son, Augustus, became a judge in First District Court of the Seine. One of his three son, Edward, born January 23, 1832 in Paris, is also aimed at the judiciary. But he prefers to follow, for six years (1850-1856), painter Thomas Couture courses and form in the museums, in contact with the art of his masters, particularly Velázquez.
Between Petit-Gennevilliers, the sailing of Argenteuil, the plain of Gennevilliers and its banks facing the Ile-Saint-Denis and Clichy, the Impressionists painted almost 350 paintings, major works of Impressionism at its peak.
Description of Edouard Manet's life in Gennevilliers
The installation of the Manet family in Gennevilliers probably dates back to half of the eighteenth century. The grandfather and the back of the painter were mayors of the city. Edouard Manet was born in Paris January 23, 1832. The family remains committed Manet in Gennevilliers and Edouard Manet returns there frequently. We know that this is Manet Claude Monet settled in Argenteuil in the last days since 1871 intervened with the owner of the house,
Aubry, and walked the first monthly rent. He left more his Paris studio to stay in Gennevilliers. We know it is convinced Claude Monet Edouard Manet during the summer of 1874 to try to outdoor paint, which has earned us the masterpieces of Argenteuil,
By boat and the boat workshop. Edouard Manet died in Paris April 30, 1883. Rosamond Bernier, in the May 1959 issue of The eye, collected an interview with Mrs. Ernest Rouard, Edouard Manet's niece and daughter of Berthe Morisot and Eugène Manet . She said that after the death of Manet, Suzanne Leenhoff, continued to live in Gennevilliers small house decorated with some paintings from her husband: Hamlet, The old musician, Baudelaire's mistress and Olympia. The people of Gennevilliers came Madame
Manet: "We just see Miss Olympia"
The color revolution
In 1874, rejected by the official Salon, thirty artists decide to exhibit in the premises of the photographer Nadar, Boulevard des Capucines in Paris. "This exile, wrote one of them, is a huge victory, it remains for us to expose ourselves and make a deadly competition with all these old blind idiots. "This is the first exhibition of" rejected "that, following a mocking article Charivari magazine, will take the Impressionists.
The exhibition, which founded the Impressionist school, is especially a great revolution that changed the art of painting.
Until then, we would just focus on substance over form. What mattered was the subject, be it religious, anecdotal, mythological, symbolic; or represents places (landscape, seascape, etc ...) or people (portraits, among others) and how to represent them was subject to rules ( "canon") which it was difficult to overcome.
Impressionism revolutionizing the look by working on the shape and offering a painting that does not attempt to accurately represent the proposed topic, but an interpretation, an "impression".
The Impressionists strive to restore the effects of fugitive lights with fragmented keys that create a disconcerting impression of vagueness to the public in the 1870s.
It is the picture Impression, Sunrise by Claude Monet (exposed to the Marmottan Museum in Paris) that will derisively give the movement its name. The criticism of Charivari Louis Leroy, who used this term to make fun of the artists.
For the first time, art is no longer in line with the eyes of contemporaries .It creates a notion of "vanguard" and an art that will be included in some minds open, intellectuals or simply curious. Everything becomes possible and the concept of art is no longer governed by the principles of rules yes.
The term "Impressionism" is taken from the famous Monet painting Impression Sunrise. By discovering at the first Impressionist exhibition in Paris in 1874, the critic of Le Figaro Louis Vauxcelles, exclaims: "Impression, I was sure. I also said to myself, since I'm impressed, there must print there. "The journalist Armand Silvestre better understand the process of Renoir, Monet and Pissarro. About their "vision" he writes wisely, "It is the printing effect it pursues only, leaving the search expression to fans of the line."
The great figures
Man: passionate, courageous, emotional, tenacious and generous.
His life: born November 14, 1840 in Paris, died on December 5, 1926 in Giverny. For many years the leader of the Impressionists is struggling to feed his wife Camille and her son John and Michael. From the 1880s, the situation improved: the dealer Paul Durand -Ruel and collectors as Ernest Hoschedé regularly buy his paintings. After getting over the death of Camille, he lives happily in Giverny, where he moved with his second wife Alice Hoschedé, daughters Suzanne and Blanche and her own children, in 1883.
His themes: The banks of the Seine, walks in nature, travel views, series (stations, poplars, haystacks and the Rouen Cathedral) and his famous Waterlilies
His most famous paintings: Print, the Rising Sun (1872); Poppies (1873); Cathedrals Rouen (1894); Nymphéas (1895 to 1925)
Man: elegant, seductive, elegant, gay, irreverent, witty and curious.
His life: born January 23, 1832 in Paris, died in May 1883 at the same location. Deriving from the gentry, Manet never had money problems, which allowed him to devote himself to his art with confidence. Despite his origins, he does not hesitate to shock public opinion by painting naked women, bad manners, or religious compositions deemed blasphemous. His scenes of Parisian life disconcerting as much by their realism. When he dies of ataxia 51 years, it is still widely misunderstood. Only his peers, such as Renoir, Monet, Degas and Berthe Morisot, mourn the "father" of modern art
His themes: The historical compositions, relatives of portraits of friends and celebrities and Parisian life.
His most famous works: Olympia (1863); The Luncheon on the Grass (1863); Fife (1866); The Execution of Maximilian (1867); balcony (1868-1869); A bar follies-shepherdess (1881-1882)
Woman: graceful, delicate, poet, affectionate and voluntary.
His life: born January 14, 1841 in Paris. By the 1870s, Manet and so impressed by the delicate works of the artist that he invited him to participate in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. The same year, Morisot married Eugène Manet, brother of the painter, which he will a daughter, Julie. She continues to paint, perfecting his portrait art peerless. In early 1880, his talent began to be recognized by the press. In 1882, his first solo exhibition is a success. But the sudden death of her husband in 1892 and his sister in 1893 deeply shaken. She died of influenza in 1895.
His themes: landscapes, outdoor scenes and family portraits of young women and children.
His most famous paintings: The Cradle (1872); Portrait of young girl in ball dress (1879); summer day at Lake of Boulogne (1879); butterfly hunting (1874); Portrait of Mrs Hubbard (1874); Woman at her toilet (1875).
Man: original, generous, loyal, lively and enthusiastic.
His life: born August 19, 1848 in Paris, died February 21, 1894 in Gennevilliers. Caillebotte dedicated to painting with confidence, having inherited a vast fortune from his father. Rejected by official circles, he began to exhibit with the Impressionists in 1876. Shocked by the early death of his brother René the same year he wrote his will in which he bequeathed his magnificent collection of paintings to the French State, which accept the legacy reluctant and refuse to many masterpieces. Caillbotte is equally generous with his Impressionist friends: he buys many paintings often lends money to Monet. Unlike Renoir, it will be very difficult to break and will be appreciated at its true value until 1960.
His themes: the Seine, the workers at work and unusual views of Paris.
His famous paintings: Floor Scrapers (1875), the bridge of Europe (1876); in coffee (1880); regatta in Argenteuil (1893); house painters (1877); Boulevard, seen from above (1880)